Updated information on Monkey Pox – transmission, clinical presentation and treatment

Monkey Pox - Transmission, Clinical Presentation &Treatment

We have updated information about the dreaded monkey pox that has become a scourge in certain parts of Nigeria recently. This health information comes from the FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE, YENAGOA, and we will be updating it should we receive any new broadcasts.

Monkey pox is an Orthopoxvirus, a genus that includes camelpox, cowpox, vaccinia, and variola viruses. It is similar to human smallpox, but much milder.

It is transmitted to people from various wild animals. Secondary spread through human-to-human transmission.

The illness can be fatal in humans, between 1% and 10%, with most deaths occurring in younger age groups.

There is no treatment (cure) or vaccine available although PRIOR SMALLPOX VACCINATION was highly effective in PREVENTING monkeypox as well.


Contact with the virus from an animal, human, or materials contaminated with the virus through.

Animal-to-human transmission: direct contact with body fluids or lesion material, or indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated bedding.
Human-to-human transmission: large respiratory droplets; direct contact with body fluids or lesion material.


Incubation period: 6 to 16 days but can range from 5 to 21 days. Monkey pox is a self-limited disease with the symptoms lasting from 14 to 21 days.

The infection can be divided into two periods:

Invasion period (0-5 days) characterised by:
– Fever
– Intense headache
– Lymphadenopathy: distinctive feature
– Back pain
– Myalgia
– Intense asthenia (lack of energy)

Skin eruption period (within 1-3 days after appearance of fever)
Face (95% of cases)
Palms of the hands and soles of the feet (75%)
Evolution of the rash from maculopapules to vesicles and pustules, followed by crusts occurs in approximately 10 days
Three weeks might be necessary before the comp disappearance of the crusts.


– Observe standard precautions
– IsolateSupportive treatment?
– AntiviralsPrevention: Smallpox vacine


What you should know about Monkeypox


At this time, there are no specific treatment available for monkey pox infection, but monkey pox outbreaks can be controlled.

Smallpox vaccine, cidofovir, ST-246, and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) can be used to control a monkey pox outbreak. CDC guidance was developed using the best available information about the benefits and risks of smallpox vaccination and drug use for the prevention and management of monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections.

Smallpox Vaccine: Because monkeypox virus is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox, the smallpox vaccine can protect people from getting monkeypox. Past data from Africa suggests that the smallpox vaccine is at least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox. Experts also believe that vaccination after a monkeypox exposure may help prevent the disease or make it less severe.

Smallpox vaccine is not currently available to the general public. In the event of another outbreak of monkeypox in the U.S., CDC will establish guidelines explaining who should be vaccinated under an investigational new drug (IND) protocol. For more information about the smallpox vaccine please visit CDC’s Smallpox Vaccination Information for Health Professionals.

Cidofovir and Brincidofovir (CMX001): Data is not available on the effectiveness of Cidofovir and Brincidofovir in treating human cases of monkeypox. However, both have proven activity against poxviruses in in vitro and animal studies.

It is unknown whether or not a person with severe monkeypox infection will benefit from treatment with either antiviral, although their use may be considered in such instances. Brincidofovir may have an improved safety profile over Cidofovir. Serious renal toxicity or other adverse events have not been observed during treatment of cytomegalovirus infections with Brincidofovir as compared to treatment using Cidofovir.

Tecovirimat (ST-246): Data is not available on the effectiveness of ST-246 in treating human cases of monkeypox. Studies using a variety of animal species have shown that ST-246 is effective in treating orthopoxvirus-induced disease. Human clinical trials indicated the drug was safe and tolerable with only minor side effects. Although currently stockpiled by the Strategic National Stockpile, use of ST-246 is administered under an IND.

Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG): Data is not available on the effectiveness of VIG in treatment of monkeypox complications. Use of VIG is administered under an IND and has no proven benefit in the treatment of smallpox complications. It is unknown whether a person with severe monkeypox infection will benefit from treatment with VIG, however, its use may be considered in such instances. VIG can be considered for prophylactic use in an exposed person with severe immunodeficiency in T-cell function for which smallpox vaccination following exposure to monkeypox is contraindicated.

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